2 edition of origin and spread of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. found in the catalog.
origin and spread of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis.
United States. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Veterinary Services.
|Series||Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. APHIS 91-10, APHIS 91 ;, 10.|
|LC Classifications||SF959.E5 U54 1973|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||i, 51 p.|
|Number of Pages||51|
|LC Control Number||73603139|
The West Nile virus is a flavivirus of African origin that can be spread to humans and other mammals via mosquitoes. Equine encephalomyelitis is an infectious disease that affects the brain of the. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important causes of human disease nearly worldwide. All arboviruses circulate among wild animals, and many cause disease after spillover transmission to humans and agriculturally important domestic animals that are incidental or dead-end hosts. Viruses such as dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) that have lost the requirement for Cited by:
FIFTH SCHEDULE. RECOMMENDATIONS ON VACCINATION PRACTICE. Regulation 6 (2) (c)(1) If the risk assessment referred to in Regulation (4) (a), (b) and (c) reveals that there is a risk to the health and safety of employees due to their exposure to a biological agent for which effective vaccines exist, the employer should offer them vaccination.(2) Vaccination should be . A number of measures can be taken to help protect your horse against WNV. These are comprised of vaccinating against the disease coupled with management strategies to reduce exposure to mosquitoes and. Horses vaccinated against Eastern, Western or Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis are not protected against WNV. A separate WNV vaccine is.
(F) Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis (VEE) vaccination is required three (3) weeks prior to entry on equidae originating from states in which VEE has been diagnosed within the preceding twelve (12) months. An entry permit is also required on equine from those states. (G) Equidae positive for brucellosis may not enter Missouri. Serologically it appears to be a distinct species. Equine Babesiosis (Equine Piroplasmosis) Definition Equine babesiosis is a febrile tick-borne disease of horses caused by either Babesia caballi (Fig. 31), B. equi (Fig. 32) or both and is generally characterized by erythrocytolysis leading to anemia, icterus, hemoglobinuria, and death.
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Origin and spread of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. Hyattsville, Md.: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, (OCoLC) Material Type: Government publication, National government publication: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: United States.
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Veterinary Services. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), commonly called Triple E or sleeping sickness (not to be confused with African trypanosomiasis), is a disease caused by a zoonotic mosquito vectored Togavirus that is present in North, Central, and South America, and the Caribbean.
EEE was first recognized in Massachusetts, United States, inwhen 75 horses died mysteriously of Specialty: Infectious disease. PDF | Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphaviruses are important re-emerging arboviruses that cause life-threatening disease in equids |.
Spread to people by infected mosquitoes. EEE virus is a rare cause of brain infections (encephalitis). Only a few cases are reported in the United States each year.
Most occur in eastern or Gulf Coast states. Approximately 30% of people with EEE die and many survivors have ongoing neurologic problems. Symptoms & Treatment. Mosquito Control. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is maintained in nature in a cycle between small rodents and mosquitoes.
45 The spread of epizootic strains of the virus to equines leads to high viremia followed by a lethal encephalitis, and tangential spread to humans. VEEV can easily be spread by the aerosol route making it a considerable danger.
EEEV, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) are related but genetically distinct alphaviruses. EEEV and VEEV are lethal in up to 90% of recognized equine cases, whereas WEEV is least virulent in horses, which have a mortality rate of origin and spread of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis.
book 40% (1). Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses in which fever and hemorrhage are caused by a viral may be caused by five distinct families of RNA viruses: the families Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and types of VHF are characterized by fever and bleeding disorders and all can Specialty: Infectious disease.
measures for five equine diseases from data regularly transmitted by the Vete rinary Services of Member Countries: African horse sickness, equine infec tious anaemia, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, contagious equine metri tis and influenza.
The major sanitary risks to which racehorses, and horses used in sport, are. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus in the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus.
EEEV, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) are Cited by: Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus.
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is maintained in nature in a cycle between small rodents and mosquitoes. 45 The spread of epizootic strains of the virus to equines leads to high viremia followed by a lethal encephalitis, and tangential spread to humans. VEEV can easily be spread by the aerosol.
A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV).
One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected.
A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established. The alphaviruses are principally mosquito-borne, positive-strand RNA viruses in the family Togaviridae that exhibit a broad range of pathogenicity in humans and animals (1, 2).
Members of the genus are distributed worldwide in diverse ecological niches, where they are usually maintained in cycles between mosquitoes and birds or mammals.
While human infections. Emergence of a new epidemic/epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in South America Article (PDF Available) in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 92(12). Horses -- Virus diseases.
See also what's at your library, or elsewhere. Broader terms: Horses; Virus diseases; Narrower terms: African horse sickness; Equine encephalomyelitis; E. Bioweapons and bioterrorism: A review of history and biological agents ˚ Defence S&T Tech. Bull. biotechnology ˚The aim of this work was the production of a new more dangerous, more easily spread and more difficult to identify combat generation of bioweapons.
Among the countries that developed a massive programme on bioweapons research. U.S. Department of Agriculture (): The origin and spread of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. pp Hyattsville, Maryland: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, US Dept.
Agric. Google ScholarAuthor: M. Abdussalam. Venezuelan equine encephalitis is very rare in this country. Children are at greatest risk of developing severe complications, while adults generally develop flu-like symptoms.
Epidemics in South and Central America have killed thousands of persons and left others with permanent, severe neurologic damage. This chapter focuses on the medically important arboviruses. As these viruses are transmitted by arthropods, arboviral disease usually manifests itself during the warmer months in the temperate climates of the world.
Laboratory diagnosis of arboviral infections has traditionally been based upon serological identification of antiviral antibodies and/or isolation of virus. Abstract. Venezuelan equine encephalitis is the most important arboviral etiology of central nervous system disease in the Americas. Human and equine disease results from equine-amplified, mosquito-borne outbreaks that expose hundreds of thousands of people to spillover by: A noteworthy accomplishment of Army medical research grew out of the command's participation in the massive vaccination program to control the spread of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis, previously noted.
The vaccine was developed by the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, an element of the USAMRDC. Comprehesive information, photos, and resources for more than exotic and emerging animal diseases.As the first to focus exclusively on alphaviruses, this book serves as an invaluable resource for researchers and clinicians working with alphaviruses and related viruses.
Topics range from: genome structure and replication; to the application of alphavirus vectors for gene therapy. Essential reading.The OIE, the World Organisation for Animal Health, is clearly one of the most appropriate organisations to undertake this task on a global level.
The main activities of the organisation, which was established in and in comprised Member Countries, are as follows: 1.